If you want to know what the key factors are to shape your body composition sustainably according to your goals and to make losing weight easier, then you should read this article!

One thing I would like to emphasize right at the beginning, it is not only the energy balance alone that counts, but also the quality of the food.




Make sure to buy food that comes from the region. With meat products, the animals should have been kept in a species-appropriate manner, which of course has an enormous effect on the quality of the meat. The same applies to fruit and vegetables, which should also be as unpolluted as possible.

Under these conditions, the food will also contain the very important vitamins, minerals and trace elements in sufficient quantity and quality, which the body needs for optimal “functioning”.

“Spend money on real foods, NOT on supplements and protein powders!

In other words, invest money on healthy foods instead of supplements and protein powders.




When it comes to reducing fat and building some muscle, simply exercising is not enough.

Your diet plays a crucial role in your progress.

If you were to compare your body to a car, then training (which makes you more efficient with the appropriate regeneration and adaptation) would be your accelerator and nutrition your brake.

How long would you drive at full throttle with your foot on the brake? Probably not very long, you would quickly “overheat”.




Eat according to your goals and possibilities, then you will see how easy it is to burn fat and build muscle.

Nutrition should become a way of life, not just a diet. Start with small changes and incorporate them step by step into your daily routine. Don’t think in short time frames, but can the dietary change “stick” for you for 5 years, if you can answer YES to that, then it will work.

Unfortunately, a lot of half-knowledge is spread in the mainstream media and social media and a lot of money is earned with new “diets”. This is at the expense of the “test persons”.

In this article, I would like to explain the basics of nutrition to you so that you no longer have to rely on such “miracle diets” in the future.

Can you imagine getting your dream body sustainably…..

  • without restricting your diet
  • without precisely planned meal times
  • without excluding certain macronutrients (protein, fat and carbohydrates) from your diet and without having to starve yourself

This is really possible and not complicated, you will learn the basics in this article!




I will start with the topic of counting calories, because the most important component is the energy balance. This is what largely determines whether you gain or lose weight.

Finally, how much of the weight you lose or gain is fat or muscle depends on several factors, but I will go into these in more detail later in the article.

When it comes to body composition, the goal should be to lose as little muscle mass as possible or even build it up and lose the excess fat. The goals and ideals can be very different here, but the principle always remains the same.

Therefore, from experience I can only recommend everyone, especially beginners in this subject, to count the calories consumed through food and thus obtain the total calories consumed at the end of the day.

Nowadays, this “calorie counting” is facilitated by many different free or paid apps (e.g. YAZIO) and takes very little time.

With the help of these apps you can get the total calories and macronutrient distribution according to your individual goals (what macronutrients are and why they are also very important follows later in the article).




Yes, you should count your calories, at least for a short time, to get a feel for how many calories each food has.

The easiest and best way to keep track of macronutrient distribution and total calories is to use an app.

The truth is that a century of research into human metabolism has shown that energy balance is one of the most important factors in achieving figure improvement. (First law of thermodynamics)

But what do I do with the total amount of calories I have determined, or how high should it be for me?

This brings us to the next crucial point: how much energy my body consumes can never be determined exactly and will always remain an approximation of reality, as there are simply too many factors that play a role.

But there is a very good approximation that can be determined with the formulas listed below, this should be your starting point, starting from this value you should record your calories consumed for 1-2 weeks and at the end look at the scales to see whether you have gained or lost weight.

Accordingly, you will then know whether the calculation was correct or not, accordingly you reduce the calorie intake or increase it or should you be the same weight, then you know how high your current calorie consumption is.

FORMULA – How many calories does my body consume?


Basal metabolic rate in calories


Three formulas (Katch McArdle, Mifflin and Harris-Benedict formulas) for calculating your basal metabolic rate, which is the energy your body uses at rest, are a very good way to determine your basal metabolic rate.

These 3 formulas are also the basis of most calorie turnover calculators that are used on the internet or in apps and are also used in scientific literature.




370 + (21.6 x fat-free body mass in kg)

Example: (body fat percentage was determined with Caliper fat calipers).

Body weight 90kg, body fat percentage 20% and therefore 72kg fat-free bw

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) = 370 + (21.6 x 72) = 1925.2kcal

The higher the percentage of fat-free muscle mass, the higher the

The higher the percentage of lean muscle mass, the higher the basal metabolic rate and, of course, the higher the total calorie consumption. Ideally, therefore, you should maintain muscle mass while reducing calories, or at least lose as little as possible. This is ensured by not having too “aggressive” a calorie deficit (approx. 10-20% of the total calorie requirement) and a correspondingly high protein content of approx. 1.5 – 2.5 g / kg body weight.




for men: (10 x body weight)+(6.25 x height in cm)-(5 x age) + 5
for women: (10 x body weight)+(6.25 x height in cm)-(5 x age) – 161


Man body weight 90kg, 188cm,42 years old
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) = (10 x 90)+(6.25 x 188)-(5 x 42) + 5 = 1870kcal

Woman body weight 80kg, 170cm,42 years
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) = (10 x 80)+(6.25 x 170)-(5 x 42) – 161 = 1491.5kcal




for men: 66.5 + (13.7 x body weight)+(5 x height in cm)-(6.8 x age)
for women: 655 + (9.6 x body weight)+(1.8 x height in cm)-(4.7 x age)


Man body weight 90kg, 188cm,42 years
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) = 66.5+(13.7×90)+(5 x 188)-(6.8 x 42) = 1953.6kcal

Woman body weight 80kg, 170cm,42 years
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) = 655+(9.6 x 80)+(1.8 x 170)-(4.7 x 42) = 1531.6kcal

Since you don’t normally just lie in bed and sleep all day :-), this basal metabolic rate is multiplied by a factor to arrive at the total calories you actually need, at least as an approximation. How high this factor is depends on your activities. As an example, the factor for someone who does little to no physical exercise is 1.15. This would mean for this person: “You have to be physically active.

This would mean for this person

Total calorie requirements / per day (TDEE) = Basal metabolic rate (BMR) x 1.15.

Theoretical example:

Basal Metabolic Rate for this person would be approximately 1925kcal according to one of the formulas above, then his total calorie requirement would be 1925 x 1.15 = 2214kcal.

The averaged factors can be used as follows:

x 1.15 (little to no activity)

x 1,2 (light activity, 1-3 hours / per week sport or similar)

x 1.4 (medium activity, 4-6 hours / per week sport or similar)

x 1,6 (very active, 7-9 hours / per week sport or similar)

x 1,8 (extremely active, 10+ hours / per week sport or similar)

This total calorie requirement is also called TDEE (total daily energy expenditure).

If the confusion with all the formulas is now perfect, here is a link where you only have to enter your data and you can individually determine where the “journey” should go.


What do you do now with the calculated number 2214kcal, as in our example above?




If you want to maintain your weight, then you should consume no more and no less than these 2214kcal on average every day.

If you want to improve your figure and lose weight (preferably only from the fat pads), then you should create a calorie deficit of 10 – 20% daily through your diet. In the example above, this would be 1771.2kcal of the TDEE (total calorie requirement) at 20%, i.e. a calorie deficit of 442.8kcal. ?

In order to “lose” 1 kilogram of fat, a total calorie deficit of 7000kcal is necessary. In this case, this would mean that in 4 weeks, with the corresponding calorie deficit, this person will lose about 1.8kg of pure fat weight.

If you want to gain weight (ideally pure muscle mass, but this is not possible in reality), then your calorie balance must be positive, i.e. you must take in more calories than your body burns.

In this case you should be taking in a calorie plus of about 10-20% of your TDEE (total calorie requirement) through your diet. Again, based on the above example, with a plus of 20%, this means that this person should take in an average of 2656.8kcal.




“JoJo effect”


Too “aggressive” or too large a calorie deficit

If you try to improve your figure with a calorie deficit that is too “aggressive” or too large, i.e. more than 20% of the daily calorie requirement (often it is 50% or more), this means STRESS PUR for the body.

Since the survival instinct is still in our genes, the body “thinks” “ATTENTION HUNGER” and slows down the metabolic processes to use less energy and adapt to the very low calorie intake.

In addition, such an aggressive diet not only burns fat, but also some muscle, as this requires more resources from the body to maintain and is effectively a luxury it does not want to afford during a famine.

Now you might think, no problem, I’ll just lose a bit of muscle – so what, the main thing is that I lose weight?

But the dilemma is that the loss of muscle mass reduces the body’s basal metabolic rate and it uses less energy, which makes it even harder to lose weight.

Not to mention that muscle is absolutely necessary for a healthy passive musculoskeletal system.

The problem with this type of diet is that people lose a lot of weight very quickly at the beginning (emptying the carbohydrate stores, thereby also losing a lot of water and muscle) and feel confirmed. The very high calorie deficit is often accompanied by malnutrition with regard to vital substances, which can also be very problematic from a health point of view.

The end of the story is very often, I’ve lost 15kg in three months (a lot of muscle mass, of course, some fat too), but I can’t keep this kind of diet up any longer anyway, but never mind, GOAL achieved, weight lost! OR? And now I eat “normally” again.


Due to the meanwhile very slowed down metabolism and the lost muscle mass, the total calorie requirement of this person is much lower than at the beginning of the diet. If this person now eats “normally” again and thus creates a relatively high calorie surplus, then he or she will very quickly gain weight again and most of it in the form of fat.

In addition, the body now “thinks”, “Ah great, famine is over, now there is more to eat again! And so that I am prepared for the next famine, I will store up fat reserves!”

This vicious circle is popularly known as the JO-JO-EFFECT!

Macronutrients are ignored

What are macronutrients anyway?

The word macros comes from the Greek and means “large”. In terms of quantity, they make up the largest part of the diet.

These are proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

(Heat) – Energy that is released when burning:

1 gram of protein = approx. 4kcal

1 gram of carbohydrates = approx. 4kcal

1 gram of fat = approx. 9kcal

The body needs these three macronutrients for the so-called building metabolism (building bones, skin, connective tissue, tendons, etc.) and for the energy metabolism (mainly carbohydrates and fats).

I don’t want to go into much more detail at this point, but these three nutrients should be supplied in sufficient form to enable the body to function optimally.

If one of these nutrients becomes deficient, the body can still function, but not optimally.

In order to try to improve your figure (lose weight) and lose mainly fat mass and little or no muscle mass, it is absolutely necessary, in addition to a calorie deficit that is not too aggressive, to ensure that you consume enough “building material”, i.e. protein, in your diet, which is very important for maintaining muscle mass?

Enough, this is a very controversial issue and there are certainly individual differences, but basically you can say between 1.5 – 2 grams /kg body weight protein should be.

As far as the percentage composition of the other two nutrients, carbohydrates and fats, is concerned, it is probably the case that for most people a “high-carb, high protein, low-fat” macronutrient distribution is optimal. Of course, this can vary from person to person?

The following three macronutrient distributions are possible:

moderate: 30% protein / 35% fat / 35% carbohydrates

high KH: 30% protein / 20% fat / 50% carbohydrates

low KH: 40% protein / 40% fat / 20% carbohydrates

Dietary supplements and new “miracle diets” all the time?

To get to the point, a balanced, species-appropriate diet with consideration for the individually required calorie balance and individual, intelligent physical activity adapted to the goal.

As far as training for a figure improvement is concerned, I will write a separate article soon, as this would otherwise go beyond the scope of this article! 🙂

#calorie balance #fat burning #ketogenic diet #diet #wheyprotein


All my recommendations or blog content have been carefully considered and reviewed and are intended for healthy adults over the age of 18. None of my articles can be a substitute for competent medical advice. Please consult a doctor before starting any exercise, nutrition or supplementation programme. Especially if you have a history of medical conditions.

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